GATE Chemistry Overview
Chemistry is one of the core science subjects. You start learning it in one form or other from class 8 or so.If you love the subject and want to explore more of it then you can appear for GATE Chemistry paper.In this article I will cover topics which will help you in preparation.
- Paper Statistics
- Free Online tests
- Recommended Books
- Detailed Syllabus
- Free Android App
In case you are not aware of GATE eligibility criteria or exam format then read my article on GATE exams.The article provides every details you want to know about the exams.You can also post your query as well.
GATE Chemistry Statistics
Below are some interesting statistics about GATE Chemistry paper
- Number of candidates registered for the exam – 18,000 (approx)
- Number of candidates appeared for the exam – 15,000 (approx)
- Number of qualified candidates – 3126
- Percentage of candidates qualified – 20% (approx)
- Maximum marks out of 100 – 77
- Minimum marks out of 100 – 19.67
- Average marks – 34.42
- Standard Deviation – 7.48
The average marks is only 34 where as the minimum marks is 20. This means majority of candidates have scored in lower range. Most candidates lie in range of 30 to 40. The number of candidates on higher marks side is less as average is too much tilted towards the minimum marks.
The pass percentage of this paper is in line with most of the GATE papers.If you can score anything above 50 then you have good chances of getting decent rank as per above statistics.Above stats give you insight about exam results. This information should be used in planning for the exam.
You should set a target of 60 marks and work towards it.Below materials will help you in preparation and you can crack the exams with ease.
GATE Chemistry online tests
GATE Chemistry online tests were created as last minute preparation material.Solving different type of questions important for exams is important.During later phase of preparation the more unique and probable type of questions you solve the better.With this aim in mind we created this online test series.You can use below links to attempt the tests.
We have included only probable questions in upcoming GATE exams.There was no attempt to include too many questions or questions of similar nature.All the tests emphasize upon different topics.So better practice each one of them.You may not know which test question features in real exam.
GATE Chemistry recommended books
It was hard to decide which book should be recommended.There are few good books available in market.You can use them for preparation along with your curriculum books and above online tests.I was planning to list few books but that would increase confusion among candidates.So I have chosen these two books out of many.You can try any one of them as per your taste.Both are good books with decent review from candidates.
The present book contains last 18 years’ solved papers of GATE Chemistry.The book has been divided into 10chapters namely Atomic Structure, Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure, s-Block and p-Block Elements, Transition Elements, Chemical and Ionic Equilibrium, Electrochemistry, Chemical Kinetics, Chemical Thermodynamics, Basics of Organic Reaction Mechanism and General Aptitude.
The previous year questions divided into 1 Mark and 2 Marks Questions have been given chapterwise and yearwise with detailed solutions at the end of every chapter. The book also contains three Mock Tests that will help the candidates to analyze the level of preparation for the upcoming GATE Chemistry examination.With ample number of previous years’ solved questions, this book will help aspirants score high in the upcoming GATE Chemistry Examination.
GATE Chemistry syllabus
You should have idea of topics to cover as part of GATE Chemistry paper.Clear understanding of syllabus is very important for preparation.These topics should be emphasized only.Below syllabus is updated and accurate.The syllabus is taken from Official website of GATE exams(link). So you can rely on the syllabus presented below.
Section 1: Physical Chemistry
Postulates of quantum mechanics. Time dependent and time independent Schrödinger equations. Born interpretation. Particle in a box. Harmonic oscillator. Rigid rotor. Hydrogen atom: atomic orbitals. Multi-electron atoms: orbital approximation. Variation and first order perturbation techniques. Chemical bonding: Valence bond theory and LCAO-MO theory. Hybrid orbitals.
Applications of LCAO-MOT to H2+, H2 and other homonuclear diatomic molecules, heteronuclear diatomic molecules like HF, CO, NO, and to simple delocalized π– electron systems. Hückel approximation and its application to annular π – electron systems. Symmetry elements and operations. Point groups and character tables. Origin of selection rules for rotational, vibrational, electronic and Raman spectroscopy of diatomic and polyatomic molecules.
Einstein coefficients. Relationship of transition moment integral with molar extinction coefficient and oscillator strength. Basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance: nuclear g factor, chemical shift, nuclear coupling.
Laws of thermodynamics. Standard states. Thermochemistry. Thermodynamic functions and their relationships: Gibbs-Helmholtz and Maxwell relations, van’t Hoff equation. Criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium. Absolute entropy. Partial molar quantities. Thermodynamics of mixing. Chemical potential. Fugacity, activity and activity coefficients. Chemical equilibria.
Dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature and pressure. Non-ideal solutions. Ionic mobility and conductivity. Debye-Hückel limiting law. Debye-Hückel-Onsager equation. Standard electrode potentials and electrochemical cells. Potentiometric and conductometric titrations. Phase rule. Clausius- Clapeyron equation.
Phase diagram of one component systems: CO2, H2O, S; two component systems: liquid-vapour, liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems. Fractional distillation. Azeotropes and eutectics. Statistical thermodynamics: microcanonical and canonical ensembles, Boltzmann distribution, partition functions and thermodynamic properties
Transition state theory: Eyring equation, thermodynamic aspects. Potential energy surfaces and classical trajectories. Elementary, parallel, opposing and consecutive reactions. Steady state approximation. Mechanisms of complex reactions. Unimolecular reactions. Kinetics of polymerization and enzyme catalysis. Fast reaction kinetics: relaxation and flow methods. Kinetics of photochemical and photophysical processes.
Surfaces and Interfaces
Physisorption and chemisorption. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms. Surface catalysis: Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. Surface tension, viscosity. Self-assembly. Physical chemistry of colloids, micelles and macromolecules. Section
2: Inorganic Chemistry
Main Group Elements
Hydrides, halides, oxides, oxoacids, nitrides, sulfides – shapes and reactivity.Structure and bonding of boranes, carboranes, silicones, silicates, boron nitride, borazines and phosphazenes. Allotropes of carbon. Chemistry of noble gases, pseudohalogens, and interhalogen compounds. Acid-base concepts.
Coordination chemistry – structure and isomerism, theories of bonding (VBT, CFT, and MOT). Energy level diagrams in various crystal fields, CFSE, applications of CFT, Jahn-Teller distortion. Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes: spectroscopic term symbols, selection rules, Orgel diagrams, charge-transfer spectra. Magnetic properties of transition metal complexes. Reaction mechanisms: kinetic and thermodynamic stability, substitution and redox reactions.
Lanthanides and Actinides
Recovery. Periodic properties, spectra and magnetic properties.
18-Electron rule; metal-alkyl, metal-carbonyl, metal-olefin and metal- carbene complexes and metallocenes. Fluxionality in organometallic complexes. Types of organometallic reactions. Homogeneous catalysis – Hydrogenation, hydroformylation, acetic acid synthesis, metathesis and olefin oxidation. Heterogeneous catalysis – Fischer- Tropsch reaction, Ziegler-Natta polymerization.
Decay processes, half-life of radioactive elements, fission and fusion processes.
Ion (Na+ and K+) transport, oxygen binding, transport and utilization, electron transfer reactions, nitrogen fixation, metalloenzymes containing magnesium, molybdenum, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc.
Crystal systems and lattices, Miller planes, crystal packing, crystal defects, Bragg’s law, ionic crystals, structures of AX, AX2, ABX3 type compounds, spinels, band theory, metals and semiconductors.
Instrumental Methods of Analysis
UV-visible spectrophotometry, NMR and ESR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry. Chromatography including GC and HPLC. Electroanalytical methods- polarography, cyclic voltammetry, ion-selective electrodes. Thermoanalytical methods
Section 3: Organic Chemistry
Chirality of organic molecules with or without chiral centres and determination of their absolute configurations. Relative stereochemistry in compounds having more than one stereogenic centre. Homotopic, enantiotopic and diastereotopic atoms, groups and faces. Stereoselective and stereospecific synthesis.
Conformational analysis of acyclic and cyclic compounds. Geometrical isomerism. Configurational and conformational effects, and neighbouring group participation on reactivity and selectivity/specificity.
Basic mechanistic concepts – kinetic versus thermodynamic control, Hammond’s postulate and Curtin-Hammett principle. Methods of determining reaction mechanisms through identification of products, intermediates and isotopic labeling. Nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions (both aromatic and aliphatic).
Addition reactions to carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom (N,O) multiple bonds. Elimination reactions. Reactive intermediates – carbocations, carbanions, carbenes, nitrenes, arynes and free radicals. Molecular rearrangements involving electron deficient atoms.
Synthesis, reactions, mechanisms and selectivity involving the following classes of compounds – alkenes, alkynes, arenes, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, nitriles, halides, nitro compounds, amines and amides. Uses of Mg, Li, Cu, B, Zn and Si based reagents in organic synthesis. Carbon-carbon bond formation through coupling reactions – Heck, Suzuki, Stille and Sonogoshira. Concepts of multistep synthesis – retrosynthetic analysis, strategic disconnections, synthons and synthetic equivalents.
Umpolung reactivity – formyl and acyl anion equivalents. Selectivity in organic synthesis – chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity. Protection and deprotection of functional groups. Concepts of asymmetric synthesis – resolution (including enzymatic), desymmetrization and use of chiral auxilliaries.
Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions through enolates (including boron enolates), enamines and silyl enol ethers. Michael addition reaction. Stereoselective addition to C=O groups (Cram and Felkin-Anh models).
Pericyclic Reactions and Photochemistry
Electrocyclic, cycloaddition and sigmatropic reactions. Orbital correlations – FMO and PMO treatments. Photochemistry of alkenes, arenes and carbonyl compounds. Photooxidation and photoreduction. Di-π-methane rearrangement, Barton reaction.
Structure, preparation, properties and reactions of furan, pyrrole, thiophene, pyridine, indole, quinoline and isoquinoline.
Structure, properties and reactions of mono- and di-saccharides, physicochemical properties of amino acids, chemical synthesis of peptides, structural features of proteins, nucleic acids, steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and alkaloids.
Applications of UV-visible, IR, NMR and Mass spectrometry in the structural determination of organic molecules
Above I have presented all the information useful for GATE Chemistry paper.In case you have any questions then post the same.I will try to answer at the earliest.Consider sharing the post in case you found it useful.
You can also use below free Android App for preparation.The App contains unlimited online tests with answers. You can also compare your score with that of others.Below link provides details of the App.